Obama announces sanctions for tech used in human rights abuses in Iran and Syria

April 23, 2012

Washington Post on April 23, 2012 released the following:

“President Obama issued an executive order Monday that allows U.S. officials for the first time to impose sanctions against foreign nationals found to have used new technologies, including cellphone tracking and Internet monitoring, to help carry out grave human rights abuses.

Social media and cellphone technology have been widely credited with helping democracy advocates organize against autocratic governments and better expose rights violations, most notably over the past year and a half in the Middle East and North Africa.

But authoritarian governments, particularly in Syria and Iran, have shown that their security services can also harness technology to help crack down on dissent — by conducting surveillance, blocking access to the Internet or tracking the movements of opposition figures.

Obama’s executive order, which he announced during a Monday speech at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, is an acknowledgment of those dangers and of the need to adapt American national security policy to a world being remade rapidly by technology, according to senior administration officials familiar with the plans. Although the order is designed to target companies and individuals assisting the governments of Iran and Syria, they said, future executive orders could name others aiding other countries through technology in crackdowns on dissent.

Under the order, the administration announced new sanctions, including a U.S. visa ban and financial restrictions, against a range of Syrian and Iranian agencies and individuals.

In Syria, the sanctions target the Syrian General Intelligence Directorate, the Syriatel phone company and Ali Mamluk, the director of Syria’s general intelligence services. In Iran, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard, the Iranian Ministry of Intelligence and Security, the Law Enforcement Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and Datak Telecom will be subject to the new sanctions.

Speaking in solemn tones, Obama described the challenges of fulfilling the “never again” pledge in the 21st century, telling the audience, “We must tell our children about a crime unique in human history: the one and only Holocaust. … We must tell them how they died, but also how they lived.”

But, he added, “remembrance without action changes nothing.”

“In that sense, ‘never again’ is a challenge to us all,” he said.

Obama’s speech at the most visible U.S. symbol of Holocaust remembrance comes at a time when his policy toward Syria, where a government crackdown has killed thousands of civilians, is under sharp criticism from his Republican rivals for the presidency.

To demonstrate the priority he places on genocide prevention, Obama used the roughly 20-minute address to reveal that he has asked for the first-ever National Intelligence Estimate — the consensus view of all U.S. intelligence agencies — appraising the potential for mass killings in countries around the world and their implication for U.S. interests.

The president also announced a set of U.S. development “challenge” grants designed to encourage technology companies to develop new ways to help residents in countries vulnerable to mass killings better detect and quickly alert others to impending dangers. And he will unveil a high-level government panel to serve as a clearinghouse for real-time intelligence, policymaking and other issues related to mass killing.

“This unprecedented direction from the president, and the development of a comprehensive strategy, sends a clear message that we are committed to combating atrocities, an old threat that regularly takes grim and modern new forms,” said Samantha Power, the National Security Council’s senior director for multilateral affairs and human rights, who will serve as chairman of the Atrocities Prevention Board. The panel’s creation was announced in August.

Last year, Obama cited an imminent threat to Libya’s civilians to explain his decision to intervene militarily against longtime leader Moammar Gaddafi.

“To brush aside America’s responsibility as a leader and ­— more profoundly — our responsibilities to our fellow human beings under such circumstances would have been a betrayal of who we are,” he said at the time.

In October, Obama dispatched 100 U.S. troops to Uganda and its neighbors to help the region’s governments hunt down Joseph Kony, the fanatical head of the Lord’s Resistance Army, notorious for its campaign of civilian slaughter and child kidnapping.

But Republicans and some human rights advocates have derided Obama’s policy in Syria as weak and pressed him to do more to stop the killings there.

Last week, echoing Obama’s own remarks on Libya delivered a year earlier, Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.) said that “for the United States to sit by and watch this wanton massacre is a betrayal of everything that we stand for and believe in.”

Obama has called for the removal of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and imposed a set of economic sanctions against his government. But Assad has ignored international pressure and kept up a brutal crackdown that human rights groups estimate has killed more than 11,000 people.

In some cases, Syrian security forces are using technology to track down the opposition movement’s leaders. Syrian officials may also have tracked satellite phones and computer addresses to locate a group of foreign journalists in February who were covering the siege of the city of Homs.

Two journalists were killed in an attack on a building where they were seeking shelter from government bombardment, among them Marie Colvin, an American working for the Sunday Times of London.

In his new executive order, Obama states that “the same GPS, satellite communications, mobile phone, and Internet technology employed by democracy activists across the Middle East and North Africa is being used against them by the regimes in Syria and Iran.”

The new steps are designed primarily to target companies explicitly aiding authoritarian governments with new technology that assists in civilian repression.

But senior administration officials say the measures should prompt all companies to think harder about how the technology they are providing to other countries might be employed and to take steps to ensure that it is not used in harmful ways.

“These technologies should be in place to empower citizens, not oppress them,” Obama said.

Obama’s visit to the memorial followed by a few days the official Holocaust Remembrance Day, and he used the first part of his speech to discuss the mass killing of Jews in Europe.

He recalled his visit to Buchenwald in June 2009, touring the former Nazi concentration camp on a still afternoon with Nobel Peace laureate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel. Wiesel also accompanied him Monday at the museum, and in his remarks, Obama thanked him and all Holocaust survivors for “not giving up.”

“If you can believe,” he said, “then we can believe.”

Obama used the second part of his remarks to discuss the legacy of Rwanda and his efforts in Libya, Sudan and central Africa, Ivory Coast and other places where mass killings or the threat of them have drawn U.S. attention.

The new Atrocities Prevention Board is intended to elevate the issue further in his administration, officials say. It will comprise senior representatives from across the administration with the goal of helping “the U.S. government identify and address atrocity threats and oversee institutional changes that will make us more nimble and effective.”

The board will hold its first session Monday afternoon and plans to meet with as many as 200 representatives of the nongovernmental organizations, university chapters of anti-genocide groups and others involved in the issue.

“This is not an afterthought, this is not a sidelight of our foreign policy,” Obama said.“We’re going to institutionalize the focus on this issue.””

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Douglas McNabb – McNabb Associates, P.C.’s
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May 18, 2011 OFAC Actions: Syria, Lebanon, and NPWMDs Added to OFAC’s SDN List

May 18, 2011

As of today, OFAC has added [SYRIA] [LEBANON] and [NPWMD]s to the Specially Designated Nationals List (SDN List):

The following [Syria] entries have been added to OFAC’s SDN list:

AIR FORCE INTELLIGENCE DIRECTORATE (a.k.a. IDARAT AL-MUKHABARAT ALJAWIYYA; a.k.a. SYRIAN AIR FORCE INTELLIGENCE) [SYRIA]

AL MASHREK FUND (a.k.a. AL MASHREK HOLDING; a.k.a. AL MASHREQ INVESTMENT FUND; a.k.a. AL MASHRIQ HOLDING; a.k.a. AL MASHRIQ INVESTMENT FUND; a.k.a. “MASHRIQ”), Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

AL MASHREK HOLDING (a.k.a. AL MASHREK FUND; a.k.a. AL MASHREQ INVESTMENT FUND; a.k.a. AL MASHRIQ HOLDING; a.k.a. AL MASHRIQ INVESTMENT FUND; a.k.a. “MASHRIQ”), Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

AL MASHREQ INVESTMENT FUND (a.k.a. AL MASHREK FUND; a.k.a. AL MASHREK HOLDING; a.k.a. AL MASHRIQ HOLDING; a.k.a. AL MASHRIQ INVESTMENT FUND; a.k.a. “MASHRIQ”), Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

AL MASHRIQ HOLDING (a.k.a. AL MASHREK FUND; a.k.a. AL MASHREK HOLDING; a.k.a. AL MASHREQ INVESTMENT FUND; a.k.a. AL MASHRIQ INVESTMENT FUND; a.k.a. “MASHRIQ”), Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

AL MASHRIQ INVESTMENT FUND (a.k.a. AL MASHREK FUND; a.k.a. AL MASHREK HOLDING; a.k.a. AL MASHREQ INVESTMENT FUND; a.k.a. AL MASHRIQ HOLDING; a.k.a. “MASHRIQ”), Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

AL SHAM COMPANY (a.k.a. AL-SHAM COMPANY; a.k.a. CHAM HOLDING; a.k.a. CHAM INVESTMENT GROUP; a.k.a. SHAM HOLDING COMPANY SAL; a.k.a. “CHAM”; a.k.a. “SHAM HOLDING”), Cham Holding Building, Daraa Highway, Sahnaya Area, P.O. Box 9525, Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

AL-KOUZBARI, Nabil (a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil Rafik; a.k.a. ALKUZBARI, Nabil Rafiq; a.k.a. KUSBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Nabil R.); DOB 20 Sep 1936; POB Damascus, Syria; citizen Syria; alt. citizen Austria; Passport P3002721 (Austria) (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-KUZBARI, Nabil (a.k.a. AL-KOUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil Rafik; a.k.a. ALKUZBARI, Nabil Rafiq; a.k.a. KUSBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Nabil R.); DOB 20 Sep 1936; POB Damascus, Syria; citizen Syria; alt. citizen Austria; Passport P3002721 (Austria) (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-KUZBARI, Nabil Rafik (a.k.a. AL-KOUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. ALKUZBARI, Nabil Rafiq; a.k.a. KUSBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Nabil R.); DOB 20 Sep 1936; POB Damascus, Syria; citizen Syria; alt. citizen Austria; Passport P3002721 (Austria) (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-KUZBARI, Nabil Rafiq (a.k.a. AL-KOUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. ALKUZBARI, Nabil Rafik; a.k.a. KUSBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Nabil R.); DOB 20 Sep 1936; POB Damascus, Syria; citizen Syria; alt. citizen Austria; Passport P3002721 (Austria) (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-SHAM COMPANY (a.k.a. AL SHAM COMPANY; a.k.a. CHAM HOLDING; a.k.a. CHAM INVESTMENT GROUP; a.k.a. SHAM HOLDING COMPANY SAL; a.k.a. “CHAM”; a.k.a. “SHAM HOLDING”), Cham Holding Building, Daraa Highway, Sahnaya Area, P.O. Box 9525, Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

BA’ATH PARTY NATIONAL SECURITY BUREAU (a.k.a. MAKTAB AL-AMN AL-QAWMI; a.k.a. SYRIAN NATIONAL SECURITY BUREAU), Syria [SYRIA]

BANNA PROPERTIES (a.k.a. BENA; a.k.a. BENA PROPERTIES), Cham Holding Building, Daraa Highway, Sahnaya Area, P.O. Box 9525, P.O. Box 9525, Damascus, Syria, Syria [SYRIA]

BENA (a.k.a. BANNA PROPERTIES; a.k.a. BENA PROPERTIES), Cham Holding Building, Daraa Highway, Sahnaya Area, P.O. Box 9525, P.O. Box 9525, Damascus, Syria, Syria [SYRIA]

BENA PROPERTIES (a.k.a. BANNA PROPERTIES; a.k.a. BENA), Cham Holding Building, Daraa Highway, Sahnaya Area, P.O. Box 9525, P.O. Box 9525, Damascus, Syria, Syria [SYRIA]

CHAM (a.k.a. AL SHAM COMPANY; a.k.a. ALSHAM COMPANY; a.k.a. CHAM HOLDING; a.k.a. CHAM INVESTMENT GROUP; a.k.a. SHAM HOLDING COMPANY SAL; a.k.a. “SHAM HOLDING”), Cham Holding Building, Daraa Highway, Sahnaya Area, P.O. Box 9525, Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

CHAM HOLDING (a.k.a. AL SHAM COMPANY; a.k.a. AL-SHAM COMPANY; a.k.a. CHAM INVESTMENT GROUP; a.k.a. SHAM HOLDING COMPANY SAL; a.k.a. “CHAM”; a.k.a. “SHAM HOLDING”), Cham Holding Building, Daraa Highway, Sahnaya Area, P.O. Box 9525, Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

CHAM INVESTMENT GROUP (a.k.a. AL SHAM COMPANY; a.k.a. AL-SHAM COMPANY; a.k.a. CHAM HOLDING; a.k.a. SHAM HOLDING COMPANY SAL; a.k.a. “CHAM”; a.k.a. “SHAM HOLDING”), Cham Holding Building, Daraa Highway, Sahnaya Area, P.O. Box 9525, Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

CHIZARI, Mohsen (a.k.a. HANSURI, Muhammad Muhawad); DOB 1 Apr 1959; POB Tehran, Iran; Commander of IRGC-Qods Force Operations and Training (individual) [SYRIA]

HANSURI, Muhammad Muhawad (a.k.a. CHIZARI, Mohsen); DOB 1 Apr 1959; POB Tehran, Iran; Commander of IRGC-Qods Force Operations and Training (individual) [SYRIA]

IDARAT AL-MUKHABARAT AL-JAWIYYA (a.k.a. AIR FORCE INTELLIGENCE DIRECTORATE; a.k.a. SYRIAN AIR FORCE INTELLIGENCE) [SYRIA]

KUSBARI, Nabil (a.k.a. AL-KOUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil Rafik; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil Rafiq; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Nabil R.); DOB 20 Sep 1936; POB Damascus, Syria; citizen Syria; alt. citizen Austria; Passport P3002721 (Austria) (individual) [SYRIA]

KUZBARI, Ahmad (a.k.a. AL-KOUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil Rafik; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil Rafiq; a.k.a. KUSBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Nabil R.); DOB 20 Sep 1936; POB Damascus, Syria; citizen Syria; alt. citizen Austria; Passport P3002721 (Austria) (individual) [SYRIA]

KUZBARI, Ahmad Nabil (a.k.a. AL-KOUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. ALKUZBARI, Nabil Rafik; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil Rafiq; a.k.a. KUSBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Nabil R.); DOB 20 Sep 1936; POB Damascus, Syria; citizen Syria; alt. citizen Austria; Passport P3002721 (Austria) (individual) [SYRIA]

KUZBARI, Nabil R. (a.k.a. AL-KOUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil Rafik; a.k.a. AL-KUZBARI, Nabil Rafiq; a.k.a. KUSBARI, Nabil; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad; a.k.a. KUZBARI, Ahmad Nabil); DOB 20 Sep 1936; POB Damascus, Syria; citizen Syria; alt. citizen Austria; Passport P3002721 (Austria) (individual) [SYRIA]

MAKTAB AL-AMN AL-QAWMI (a.k.a. BA’ATH PARTY NATIONAL SECURITY BUREAU; a.k.a. SYRIAN NATIONAL SECURITY BUREAU), Syria [SYRIA]

MASHRIQ (a.k.a. AL MASHREK FUND; a.k.a. AL MASHREK HOLDING; a.k.a. AL MASHREQ INVESTMENT FUND; a.k.a. AL MASHRIQ HOLDING; a.k.a. AL MASHRIQ INVESTMENT FUND), Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

SHAM HOLDING (a.k.a. AL SHAM COMPANY; a.k.a. AL-SHAM COMPANY; a.k.a. CHAM HOLDING; a.k.a. CHAM INVESTMENT GROUP; a.k.a. SHAM HOLDING COMPANY SAL; a.k.a. “CHAM”), Cham Holding Building, Daraa Highway, Sahnaya Area, P.O. Box 9525, Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

SHAM HOLDING COMPANY SAL (a.k.a. AL SHAM COMPANY; a.k.a. AL-SHAM COMPANY; a.k.a. CHAM HOLDING; a.k.a. CHAM INVESTMENT GROUP; a.k.a. “CHAM”; a.k.a. “SHAM HOLDING”), Cham Holding Building, Daraa Highway, Sahnaya Area, P.O. Box 9525, Damascus, Syria [SYRIA]

SYRIAN AIR FORCE INTELLIGENCE (a.k.a. AIR FORCE INTELLIGENCE DIRECTORATE; a.k.a. IDARAT AL-MUKHABARAT AL-JAWIYYA) [SYRIA]

SYRIAN MILITARY INTELLIGENCE, Syria [SYRIA]

SYRIAN NATIONAL SECURITY BUREAU (a.k.a. BA’ATH PARTY NATIONAL SECURITY BUREAU; a.k.a. MAKTAB AL-AMN AL-QAWMI), Syria [SYRIA]

The following [Syria][NPWMD][IRGC] entries have been changed on OFAC’s SDN list:

SALIMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI,Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasmi; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [NPWMD] [IRGC] -to- SALIMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasim; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [SYRIA] [NPWMD] [IRGC]

SOLAIMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasmi; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [NPWMD] [IRGC] -to- SOLAIMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasim; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [SYRIA] [NPWMD] [IRGC]

SOLEIMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasmi; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [NPWMD] [IRGC] -to- SOLEIMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasim; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [SYRIA] [NPWMD] [IRGC]

SOLEMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasmi; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [NPWMD] [IRGC] -to- SOLEMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasim; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [SYRIA] [NPWMD] [IRGC]

SOLEYMANI, Ghasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasmi; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [NPWMD] [IRGC] -to- SOLEYMANI, Ghasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasim; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [SYRIA] [NPWMD] [IRGC]

SOLEYMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasmi; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [NPWMD] [IRGC] -to- SOLEYMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasim; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [SYRIA] [NPWMD] [IRGC]

SULAIMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasmi; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [NPWMD] [IRGC] -to- SULAIMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasim; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [SYRIA] [NPWMD] [IRGC]

SULAYMAN, Qasmi (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [NPWMD] [IRGC] -to- SULAYMAN, Qasim (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULEMANI, Qasem); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [SYRIA] [NPWMD] [IRGC]

SULEMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasmi); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [NPWMD] [IRGC] -to- SULEMANI, Qasem (a.k.a. SALIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Ghasem; a.k.a. SOLEYMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAIMANI, Qasem; a.k.a. SULAYMAN, Qasim); DOB 11 Mar 1957; POB Qom, Iran; citizen Iran; nationality Iran; Diplomatic Passport 008827 (Iran) issued 1999 (individual) [SYRIA] [NPWMD] [IRGC]

The following [Syria][LEBANON] entries have been changed on OFAC’s SDN list:

MAKHLOUF, Hafez (a.k.a. MAKHLUF, Hafiz); DOB circa 1975; POB Damascus, Syria; Colonel (individual) [LEBANON] -to- MAKHLOUF, Hafez (a.k.a. MAKHLUF, Hafiz); DOB circa 1975; POB Damascus, Syria; Colonel (individual) [SYRIA] [LEBANON]

MAKHLUF, Hafiz (a.k.a. MAKHLOUF, Hafez); DOB circa 1975; POB Damascus, Syria; Colonel (individual) [LEBANON] -to- MAKHLUF, Hafiz (a.k.a. MAKHLOUF, Hafez); DOB circa 1975; POB Damascus, Syria; Colonel (individual) [SYRIA] [LEBANON]

The following [Syria] entries have been added to OFAC’s SDN list:

AL ASSAD, Bashar Hafez (a.k.a. AL-ASAD, Bashar; a.k.a. AL-ASSAD, Bashar; a.k.a. ASSAD, Bashar); DOB 11 Sep 1965; POB Damascus, Syria; President of the Syrian Arab Republic (individual) [SYRIA]

AL SHARAA, Farouk (a.k.a. AL-SHARA, Farouk; a.k.a. AL-SHARA, Farouq; a.k.a. AL-SHARAA, Farouk; a.k.a. SHARAA, Farouk); DOB 1938; POB Dar’a, Syria; Vice president (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-ASAD, Bashar (a.k.a. AL ASSAD, Bashar Hafez; a.k.a. AL-ASSAD, Bashar; a.k.a. ASSAD, Bashar); DOB 11 Sep 1965; POB Damascus, Syria; President of the Syrian Arab Republic (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-ASSAD, Bashar (a.k.a. AL ASSAD, Bashar Hafez; a.k.a. AL-ASAD, Bashar; a.k.a. ASSAD, Bashar); DOB 11 Sep 1965; POB Damascus, Syria; President of the Syrian Arab Republic (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-CHAAR, Mohammad Ibrahim (a.k.a. ALSHAAR, Mohammad Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHAAR, Mohammed Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHA’AR, Muhammad Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHAAR, Muhammad Ibrahim); DOB 1950; POB Lattakia Province, Syria; Major General, Minister of the Interior (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-SHAAR, Mohammad Ibrahim (a.k.a. ALCHAAR, Mohammad Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHAAR, Mohammed Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHA’AR, Muhammad Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHAAR, Muhammad Ibrahim); DOB 1950; POB Lattakia Province, Syria; Major General, Minister of the Interior (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-SHAAR, Mohammed Ibrahim (a.k.a. ALCHAAR, Mohammad Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHAAR, Mohammad Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHA’AR, Muhammad Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHAAR, Muhammad Ibrahim); DOB 1950; POB Lattakia Province, Syria; Major General, Minister of the Interior (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-SHA’AR, Muhammad Ibrahim (a.k.a. ALCHAAR, Mohammad Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHAAR, Mohammad Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHAAR, Mohammed Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHAAR, Muhammad Ibrahim); DOB 1950; POB Lattakia Province, Syria; Major General, Minister of the Interior (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-SHAAR, Muhammad Ibrahim (a.k.a. ALCHAAR, Mohammad Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHAAR, Mohammad Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHAAR, Mohammed Ibrahim; a.k.a. AL-SHA’AR, Muhammad Ibrahim); DOB 1950; POB Lattakia Province, Syria; Major General, Minister of the Interior (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-SHARA, Farouk (a.k.a. AL SHARAA, Farouk; a.k.a. AL-SHARA, Farouq; a.k.a. AL-SHARAA, Farouk; a.k.a. SHARAA, Farouk); DOB 1938; POB Dar’a, Syria; Vice president (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-SHARA, Farouq (a.k.a. AL SHARAA, Farouk; a.k.a. AL-SHARA, Farouk; a.k.a. AL-SHARAA, Farouk; a.k.a. SHARAA, Farouk); DOB 1938 POB Dar’a, Syria; Vice president (individual) [SYRIA]

AL-SHARAA, Farouk (a.k.a. AL SHARAA, Farouk; a.k.a. AL-SHARA, Farouk; a.k.a. AL-SHARA, Farouq; a.k.a. SHARAA, Farouk); DOB 1938; POB Dar’a, Syria; Vice president (individual) [SYRIA]

ASSAD, Bashar (a.k.a. AL ASSAD, Bashar Hafez; a.k.a. AL-ASAD, Bashar; a.k.a. AL-ASSAD, Bashar); DOB 11 Sep 1965; POB Damascus, Syria; President of the Syrian Arab Republic (individual) [SYRIA]

HABIB, Ali (a.k.a. MAHMOUD, Ali Habib; a.k.a. MAHMOUD, Ali Muhammad Habib; a.k.a. MAHMUD, Ali Habib); DOB 1939; POB Tartous, Syria; Lieutenant General, Minister of Defense (individual) [SYRIA]

MAHMOUD, Ali Habib (a.k.a. HABIB, Ali; a.k.a. MAHMOUD, Ali Muhammad Habib; a.k.a. MAHMUD, Ali Habib); DOB 1939; POB Tartous, Syria; Lieutenant General, Minister of Defense (individual) [SYRIA]

MAHMOUD, Ali Muhammad Habib (a.k.a. HABIB, Ali; a.k.a. MAHMOUD, Ali Habib; a.k.a. MAHMUD, Ali Habib); DOB 1939; POB Tartous, Syria; Lieutenant General, Minister of Defense (individual) [SYRIA]

MAHMUD, Ali Habib (a.k.a. HABIB, Ali; a.k.a. MAHMOUD, Ali Habib; a.k.a. MAHMOUD, Ali Muhammad Habib); DOB 1939; POB Tartous, Syria; Lieutenant General, Minister of Defense (individual) [SYRIA]

SAFAR, Adel (a.k.a. SAFR, Adil); DOB 1953; POB Damascus, Syria; Prime Minister (individual) [SYRIA]

SAFR, Adil (a.k.a. SAFAR, Adel); DOB 1953; POB Damascus, Syria; Prime Minister (individual) [SYRIA]

SHARAA, Farouk (a.k.a. AL SHARAA, Farouk; a.k.a. AL-SHARA, Farouk; a.k.a. AL-SHARA, Farouq; a.k.a. AL-SHARAA, Farouk); DOB 1938; POB Dar’a, Syria; Vice president (individual) [SYRIA]

The following [Syria] entries have been added to OFAC’s SDN list:

QUDSIAH, Abdulfatah (a.k.a. QUDSIYAH, Abd-alFatah; a.k.a. QUDSIYAH, Abdul Fatah); DOB 1950; alt. DOB 1963; Major General, Head of Syrian Military Intelligence (individual) [SYRIA]

QUDSIYAH, Abd-al-Fatah (a.k.a. QUDSIAH, Abdulfatah; a.k.a. QUDSIYAH, Abdul Fatah); DOB 1950; alt. DOB 1963; Major General, Head of Syrian Military Intelligence (individual) [SYRIA]

QUDSIYAH, Abdul Fatah (a.k.a. QUDSIAH, Abdulfatah; a.k.a. QUDSIYAH, Abd-al-Fatah); DOB 1950; alt. DOB 1963; Major General, Head of Syrian Military Intelligence (individual) [SYRIA]

ZAITOUN, Mohammed Dib (a.k.a. ZAYTUN, Muhammad Dib; a.k.a. ZEITOUN, Mohammed Dib); DOB 1952; Major General, Director of Political Security Directorate (individual) [SYRIA]

ZAYTUN, Muhammad Dib (a.k.a. ZAITOUN, Mohammed Dib; a.k.a. ZEITOUN, Mohammed Dib); DOB 1952; Major General, Director of Political Security Directorate (individual) [SYRIA]

ZEITOUN, Mohammed Dib (a.k.a. ZAITOUN, Mohammed Dib; a.k.a. ZAYTUN, Muhammad Dib); DOB 1952; Major General, Director of Political Security Directorate (individual) [SYRIA]

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“5/18/2011
WASHINGTON – Today, President Obama signed an Executive Order (E.O.) imposing sanctions against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and six other senior officials of the Government of Syria in an effort to increase pressure on the Government of Syria to end its use of violence against its people and begin transitioning to a democratic system that protects the rights of the Syrian people.

Also today, the U.S. Department of the Treasury announced the designation of 10 individuals and entities pursuant to E.O. 13572 – signed by President Obama on April 29, 2011 –targeting Syrian officials and others responsible for human rights abuses, including repression against the Syrian people, as well as a set of companies tied to Syrian corruption.

The United States continues to strongly condemn the Syrian government’s use of violence and intimidation against its people and urges President al-Assad and his regime to answer the calls of the Syrian people for a more representative government and embark upon the path of meaningful democratic reform.

“The actions the Administration has taken today send an unequivocal message to President Assad, the Syrian leadership, and regime insiders that they will be held accountable for the ongoing violence and repression in Syria,” said Acting Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence David S. Cohen. “President al-Assad and his regime must immediately end the use of violence, answer the calls of the Syrian people for a more representative government, and embark upon the path of meaningful democratic reform.”

New Executive Order
In signing this Executive Order, the President has provided the United States with additional tools to pressure senior Syrian government officials and has imposed sanctions on the following individuals listed in the Annex to the Order:

  • Bashar al-Assad: President of the Syrian Arab Republic
  • Farouk al-Shara: Vice President of the Syrian Arab Republic
  • Adel Safar: Prime Minister of the Syrian Arab Republic
  • Mohammad Ibrahim al-Shaar: Minister of the Interior of the Syrian Arab Republic
  • Ali Habib Mahmoud: Minister of Defense of the Syrian Arab Republic
  • Abdul Fatah Qudsiya: Head of Syrian Military Intelligence
  • Mohammed Dib Zaitoun: Director of Political Security Directorate

As a result of this action, any property in the United States or in the possession or control of U.S. persons in which the individuals listed in the Annex have an interest is blocked, and U.S. persons are generally prohibited from engaging in transactions with them.

The President has authorized the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State, to take actions to block the property and interests in property of senior Syrian Government officials; agencies and instrumentalities of the Syrian Government, persons owned or controlled by the Syrian Government, or by officials of the Syrian Government; persons that have provided material support to those blocked pursuant to this Order; and, those that are owned or controlled by, or that have acted for or on behalf of persons pursuant to in this Order.

Executive Order 13572 Designations
Exposing further the complicity of Syrian government officials in the human rights abuses and repression of the Syrian people, Treasury designated today the following individuals and entities pursuant to E.O. 13572:

  • Hafiz Makhluf: a cousin of President al-Assad and senior official of the Syrian General Intelligence Directorate (GID), the overarching civilian intelligence service in Syria listed in the Annex to E.O. 13572. Makhluf was given a leading role in responding to protests in Syria, and was heavily involved in the Syrian regime’s actions in Dar’a, where protesters were killed by Syrian security forces. Makhluf was previously designated by Treasury in November 2007 pursuant to E.O. 13441, which targets persons undermining the sovereignty of Lebanon or its democratic processes and institutions.
  • Syrian Military Intelligence (SMI): One of the four major branches of Syria’s security forces. During the recent civil unrest in Syria the SMI has used force against and arrested demonstrators participating in the unrest.
  • Syrian National Security Bureau (NSB): An element of the Syrian Ba’ath Party. The Syrian National Security Bureau (NSB) directed Syrian security forces to use extreme force against demonstrators.
  • Syrian Air Force Intelligence (SAFI): In late April 2011, security forces including personnel from SAFI fired tear gas and live ammunition to disperse crowds of demonstrators who took to the streets in Damascus and other cities after noon prayers, killing at least 43 people.
  • Qasem Soleimani: Commander of the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps-Qods Force (IRGC-QF), the conduit for Iranian material support to the GID. The IRGC-QF was listed in the Annex to E.O. 13572.
  • Mohsen Chizari: A senior IRGC-QF officer who serves as the Commander of IRGC-QF Operations and Training.

E.O. 13572 authorizes the United States to sanction any person that is owned or controlled by, or acts for or on behalf of any person designated pursuant to E.O. 13460. Included in today’s action are three companies and one corporate official for ties to public corruption in Syria. The targets are Cham Holding and its Chairman Nabil Rafik al Kuzbari, Bena Properties, and Al Mashreq Investment Fund, all of which are owned or controlled by, or acting for or on behalf of Rami Makhlouf. Makhlouf, a powerful Syrian businessman and regime insider, was designated by Treasury in February 2008 under E.O. 13460 for improperly benefitting from and aiding the public corruption of Syrian regime officials.”

See OFAC’s Press Release here.

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Douglas McNabb and other members of the firm practice and write extensively on matters involving Federal Criminal Defense, INTERPOL Red Notice Removal, International Extradition and OFAC SDN List Removal.

The author of this blog is Douglas McNabb. Please feel free to contact him directly at mcnabb@mcnabbassociates.com or at one of the offices listed above.

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